Le Viol de Nankin - L'horreur puis le silence

En décembre 1937, 50 000 soldats japonais se pressent sous les murailles de Nankin, l'ancienne cité fortifiée redevenue capitale de la jeune République de Chine. Après la déroute des défenseurs de l'armée nationaliste de Chiang kai-shek ; la ville, qui compte alors un million d'âmes, pour la plupart les humbles incapables de fuir et des réfugiés venus de Shanghai et des provinces alentours, tombe aux mains des troupes impériales. Ce huis clos infernal, ceint de remparts, sera le théâtre de l'un des plus effroyables carnages du siècle, révélant la sauvagerie inouïe des occupants nippons et le cynisme de l'état-major. Plongeant aux limites de l'insoutenable, la sino-américaine Iris Chang lève le voile de silence qui s'est abattu durant des décennies sur une tragédie entrée dans l'histoire sous le nom du « Viol de Nankin ».


ATTENTION > Certaines photos illustrant cet article peuvent heurter la sensibilité !

Au cours des années 1920 et 1930, l'Empire du Japon, sous couvert de combattre le colonialisme occidental des « pays —frères » d'Asie continentale, se lance dans une ambitieuse campagne expansionniste, censée montrer au monde quelle juste place revient aux Japonais. Au-delà de l'objectif avoué, il ne s'agit rien moins que de la conquête pure et simple d'une part croissante de la zone d'influence nippone naturelle, qui à terme doit garantir l'approvisionnement du pays en matières premières dont il est dépourvu, et fournir une solution à la surpopulation déjà problématique de l'archipel en ouvrant au peuple japonais un vaste « espace vital » gagné sur les voisins coréens puis chinois, dont il se veut le protecteur bienveillant.





Voyage au bout de la nuit

Le 18 septembre 1931, à la faveur d'un incident ferroviaire en Mandchourie, survenu dans des circonstances troubles mettant en cause des activistes chinois, le Japon envoie sur le continent un corps expéditionnaire qui s'empare rapidement de cette région du Nord de la Chine. L'état fantoche du « Manchukuo » est ainsi instauré. L'opportuniste Pu Yi, le célèbre « dernier Empereur »*, ultime descendant de la dynastie mandchoue qui régnait autrefois sur tout l'Empire du Milieu, recouvre son trône. En mettant la main sur les formidables ressources minières et énergétiques de la Mandchourie, le Japon accroît encore la pression sur la Chine, et renforce son arsenal militaire avant l'incontournable confrontation. Durant des années, le ton va monter sur la frontière. L'état-major nippon n'attend plus qu'un prétexte pour lancer une opération de grande envergure, qui lui sera fourni au cours de l'été 1937, lorsqu'un soldat de l'armée impériale est abattu, là encore dans un contexte confus, lors d'une manœuvre nocturne non loin de Tientsin. Poussant vers le Sud, les troupes japonaises assiègent Shanghai au début de l'automne, où elles se heurtent à une résistance inattendue. Quand la ville tombe enfin, après de sanglants combats de rue, de nombreuses exactions sont déjà constatées : les viols et exécutions sommaires sont légion, faisant craindre le pire quant à la suite des opérations. Progressant désormais à l'Est, en direction de Nankin, l'armée impériale rase village sur village, massacrant souvent les populations civiles. Les campagnes se vident, leurs habitants fuyant pour trouver refuge derrière les murailles de la nouvelle capitale, réputée imprenable. L'afflux de réfugiés comble ainsi le vide laissé par les plus aisés qui sont parvenus à s'enfuir. Le 19 novembre, les trois colonnes qui marchent sur la cité font jonction et investissent, presque sans coup férir, la ville abandonnée par ses défenseurs dans la plus grande confusion. Six semaines d'horreur d'absolue vont suivre…








Le procès-verbal du Tribunal Militaire International d'Extrême-Orient, qui jugea en 1946 les criminels de guerre japonais, estime, sur la base de 779 témoignages et 4 336 dépositions recueillis uniquement dans la ville, que plus de 260 000 chinois furent directement tués par l'occupant durant le massacre de Nankin, ceci sans compter les dizaines de milliers de viols et sévices. Bien que le chiffre soit fortement contesté par certains historiens nippons, et par leurs confrères chinois, qui le jugent nettement sous-évalué et le porteraient à 400 000 victimes, soit environ la moitié des habitants, il apparaît comme étant fondé sur les sources les moins contestables. Pourtant, ce n'est pas tant ce nombre colossal que la manière abominable dont ces hommes, femmes et enfants, jeunes et vieux, furent tués qui stupéfait. Oscillant entre la consignation pour l'éternité et la frénésie de l'épouvante, Iris Chang égrène les pires atrocités : femmes enceintes éventrées, nouveaux-nés empalés sur des baïonnettes, prisonniers décapités par centaines lors de funestes concours au sabre. Si l'horreur est inscrite dans les gènes de la guerre, ce qui frappe et révulse ici, ce n'est justement par la singularité anecdotique, aussi inacceptable soit-elle, mais au contraire la généralisation, le carnage à grande échelle couvert puis encouragé par l'autorité, le sadisme décomplexé pour exercice d'aguerrissement d'une armée régulière, pourtant sévèrement encadrée et farouchement disciplinée. Chaque totalitarisme charrie son lot d'hécatombes, mais celui-ci a ceci de particulier qu'en dépit de son envergure monstrueuse, il ne fit jamais l'objet par la suite d'un travail de deuil, de contrition salutaire. C'est en cela que Chang, qui appelle de ses vœux cette reconnaissance, fait œuvre de mémoire. Plus que jamais, en ces temps où le Japon voit resurgir les ombres du passé**, ce livre est une clé pour comprendre les rapports complexes entre les deux géants asiatiques et éviter que l'histoire ne se répète. Pour autant, une étincelle s'allume parfois, même au cœur des ténèbres. Les membres du Comité International pour la Sécurité de Nankin furent de ces veilleuses obstinées.









John Rabe, « Oscar Schindler » de Nankin

A l'approche des forces japonaises, Nankin se vida également des nombreux ressortissants étrangers qu'abritaient consulats et ambassades. Une poignée d'hommes, ainsi qu'une femme, pour la plupart américains et allemands, résistèrent néanmoins à la tentation de fuir et constituèrent la « Zone de Sûreté de Nankin », dont ils s'efforcèrent de garantir la neutralité inviolable. En fait de « zone », il s'agissait d'un vaste périmètre, hâtivement flanqué de croix rouges, où s'entassèrent bientôt des centaines de milliers de réfugiés terrifiés et faméliques. Dans l'esprit de John Rabe, le président du comité, un allemand natif de Nankin représentant le parti nazi (en réalité, Rabe ne semble avoir eu qu'une connaissance très théorique de la réalité du nazisme en Allemagne, et fut vraisemblablement séduit plutôt par son volet socialiste), cette situation ne durerait que quelques jours, le temps qu'il faudrait aux japonais pour se rendre complètement maîtres de la ville avant d'y imposer la loi martiale. Les hommes du comité connaissaient le monde, ils étaient prêtres missionnaires ou diplomates, et avaient donc tout lieu de croire que les troupes de la puissante armée impériale se comporteraient avec plus de dignité que les seigneurs de guerre corrompus aux ordres de Chiang Kai-shek. Ils se trompaient lourdement. Dès leur entrée dans la cité, les soldats japonais incendièrent méthodiquement tous les quartiers, violèrent systématiquement les femmes qui se trouvaient sur leur passage, et passèrent par les armes l'ensemble des milliers de prisonniers de guerre qui s'étaient rendus, sous le prétexte qu'une révolte grondait et que le corps expéditionnaire n'avait aucun moyen de nourrir autant de bouches inutiles.









Jusqu'au début de l'année 1938, durant six semaines, tandis que les cadavres s'amoncelaient, nourrissant les chiens errants, une douzaine d'étrangers vola de place en place pour empêcher les rafles de prisonniers, parcourant jour et nuit la zone de sûreté, constamment menacés, intimidés, parfois violentés par l'occupant. Ils s'interposèrent entre les fusils et leurs proies, avec pour seules armes des insignes de leurs pays d'origine et leur inflexible détermination. Robert Wilson, le seul chirurgien resté à Nankin, opéra sans relâche, malgré la confiscation du matériel qui lui restait, des milliers de blessés ou de victimes de tortures abjectes, jusqu'à presque succomber d'épuisement. Minnie Vautrin, qui garde dans le cœur des survivants le surnom de « déesse vivante de Nankin », arracha à une mort atroce des centaines de jeunes femmes, terrées dans des caves, jusqu'au printemps, lorsque l'armée japonaise leva enfin le camp.

Pour les membres du Comité, le temps était désormais compté. Traumatisés par les horreurs qu'ils avaient vues et endurées, certains se donnèrent la mort, d'autres perdirent la raison ou s'affaiblirent brutalement, payant de leur vie le tribut de tant d'énergie dépensée dans ces conditions effroyables.

Le silence : le second viol

Lorsque le tribunal international rendit son verdict, les habitants de la ville qui avaient survécu à cet enfer crurent que le monde s'intéresserait enfin à leur sort. Eux aussi se berçaient d'illusions. Si, aux premiers temps de l'occupation, les quotidiens nippons couvraient les exploits macabres de leurs troupes, louant même, par exemple, un record de décapitations au sabre atteint par le sous-lieutenant Noda, une chape de plomb s'abattit bientôt sur les horreurs commises à Nankin. La censure militaire ordonna rapidement de passer sous silence les exactions, craignant la mauvaise presse, puis, durant des décennies, des hommes politiques japonais s'échinèrent à minimiser, voire nier ces faits. Aux Etats-Unis, les journalistes furent invités à ne pas dresser l'opinion américaine contre le Japon, le gouvernement de Roosevelt estimant alors qu'une issue diplomatique pouvait encore apaiser les tensions naissantes entre les deux pays. John Rabe regagna l'Allemagne en avril 1938, et projeta un précieux film à Berlin, révélant aux allemands ce qui s'était produit à Nankin. Il fut décoré de prestigieux titres humanitaires pour son courage, puis demanda audience auprès de Hitler en personne, afin de le convaincre de rompre son alliance avec le Japon. En lieu et place de réponse, il reçut la visite de la Gestapo, qui saisit ses rapports, et le « pria » de cesser au plus vite de répandre ses calomnies au sujet des honorables alliés du Reich. Peu après, Rabe fut muté en Afghanistan par Siemens, son employeur, pour sa propre sécurité…

Enfin, en Chine même, avec l'avènement du communisme de Mao Tsé-Toung, les témoins du massacre de Nankin durent se taire, afin de ne pas froisser le Japon, seul pays alors en passe de reconnaître la légitimité de la République Populaire de Chine sur la scène diplomatique internationale. Le régime souhaitait en outre « faire table rase du passé ».

C'est parce que « Le Viol de Nankin » combat ce silence, qui aujourd'hui encore interdit le deuil, qu'il se révèle indispensable. Bien que sombrant parfois dans le voyeurisme, Chang évite toutefois l'écueil de l'anathème racial. Souhaitons que certains exemples soient suivis, tels celui d'Azuma Shiro qui, en dépit des menaces de mort, fut le premier vétéran à admettre publiquement la vérité sur Nankin pour que ce drame ne sombre jamais dans l'oubli. Ou encore le professeur Ienaga Saburo, qui gagna un procès à l'état japonais en 1965 pour protester contre l'éviction des mentions portant sur les atrocités de Nankin dans les manuels scolaires nippons. Souhaitons-le pour la paix de l'Asie et du monde.

Ujisato

* Voir à ce propos le film éponyme réalisé par Bernardo Bertolucci
** Lire à ce sujet l'article consacré aux résurgences des tensions sino-japonaises

J'ajoute également une note de Duncan, qui nuance le propos en revenant sur la controverse autour du nombre des victimes.

Dans la Revue L'HISTOIRE, n°326, Décembre 2007, p. 6 à 13. Dossier sur le Massacre de Nankin commis par l'armée Japonaise en décembre 1937. Ce court dossier est bien réalisé. L'ensemble semble très juste et mesuré, évitant l'écueil (facile) du révisionnisme (négationnisme ?) japonais mais évitant également, et c'est souvent plus difficile, l'exagération chinoise (qui parle de 300000 morts, chiffres non retenus par les historiens).

Quelques chiffres pour situer ce massacre, le premier d'une population civile en temps de guerre. (Déjà, les japonais avaient été les premiers à bombarder des civils à Shangai...)
- On estime qu'il y avait 200 mille habitants à Nankin.
- Entre 65 et 115 mille victimes. Dont l'écrasante majorité après la fin des combats. Ce chiffre se décompose en 15 à 25 mille morts pendant la prise de la ville, de 30 à 60 mille soldats prisonniers massacrés après la fin des combats et de 20 à 30 mille civils assassinés.
- 8 à 20 mille viols de femmes de 9 à 76 ans. C'est à Nankin que les japonais ont "inventé" les femmes de confort, prostituées forcées la nuit, esclaves le jour.
- 33 % des bâtiments pillés, détruits puis brûlés.

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Commentaires

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J'ai découvert cette page d'histoire au détour d'une lecture divertissante, Tokyo de Mo Hayder. L'auteur étant une spécialiste du thriller, j'ai commencé à fouiller par moi-même. Il me semblait en effet impensable qu'une horreur d'une telle ampleur, si récente, ne fasse pas partie des manuels scolaires. Je suis en train de terminer le livre d'Iris Chang et je cherche en parallèle sur la toile et j'avoue ne pas comprendre (ou trop bien). J'ai un sentiment de culpabilité, de honte, d'appartenir à une civilisation capable nier l'horreur pour de simples raisons géopolitiques... Il y a Nankin mais aussi toutes les autres villes du trajet, la Corée... Combien de morts au total? Un deuil impossible tant pour les victimes que pour les bourreaux, obligés d’exécuter les ordres...

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